Electrical transducer: convert physical,mechanical, or optical quantity or measurand into an electrical energy.
Measurand: the quantity of the instrument which is designed to measure such as heat, position, and flow rate.
Pasive: the action of the measurand on the detector itself produces an output with an external energy source such as photodiode, thermistor, strain gauge and etc.
Active: the action of the measurand on the detector itself produces an output without an external energy source such as piezo electric, photovoltaic, thermocouples and etc.
Range: the maximum and minimum value of the measurand which is the transducer is design to meaasure.
Bias: a constant of error which is present over the full range of the transducer due to a function of external parameter such as pressure, heat, megnetismz and etc.
Linearrity: the deviation which is propotiional to the measurand and measurement reading.
Sensitivity: the ratio of changes at the output to the corresponding changes in the measurand; thus the sensitivity of a photo-sensor might be quoted in amp per lumen.
Accuracy: is used to the quantity the degree of correctness of the measurement.